Research Areas

Despite breakthroughs in treatment…

…there is still unmet patient need:

1 in 4 of all cancers are 'rare' with limited treatment options1

Cancer often progresses during therapy, becoming resistant to multiple treatments2,3

Less than half of patients may experience long-term remissions with some cancers4,5

Side effects may result in dose reduction or treatment discontinuation6

Cancer relapses occur in many patients when the effect of therapy lessens or the disease changes7

Areas of research

Advances in cancer treatment

Early cancer treatment was cytotoxic with poor tolerability, advances have allowed improvements to be made so that treatments are less toxic and more targeted. However, unmet medical needs remain.

Rare cancers

The National Cancer Institute defines rare cancer as one that occurs in fewer than 15 out of 100,000 people each year. Rare cancers are often more difficult to prevent, diagnose, and treat than more common cancers, primarily because there are fewer cases, and so research is difficult.

Relapsed / refractory cancer

Despite initial responses to cancer therapy, patients can relapse and develop cancer that does not respond to treatment. Other cancers may be resistant to first-line treatment.

Blood cancers

Blood cancers affect the production and function of blood cells. They include cancers such as multiple myeloma, leukaemias, and lymphomas.

Lymphoid malignancies

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Lymphoid malignancies

Cancers arising from cells of the immune system at different stages of differentiation, resulting in a wide range of morphologic, immunologic, and clinical findings.


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Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

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Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

A subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that originates in the skin as an itchy, red rash that can thicken to form a tumour. The most common types are mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome.


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Hodgkin lymphoma

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Hodgkin lymphoma

A type of lymphoma characterised by the presence of the Reed-Sternberg cell. The two major types of Hodgkin lymphoma are classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.


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Peripheral T-cell lymphoma

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Peripheral T-cell lymphoma

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma originating from mature T lymphocytes.


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T-cell-prolymphocytic leukaemia

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T-cell-prolymphocytic leukaemia

T-cell-prolymphocytic leukaemia, a very rare mature T-cell leukaemia with aggressive behaviour, which primarily affects adults >30 years of age.


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Multiple myeloma

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Multiple myeloma

A blood cancer that originates from plasma cells, which are the white blood cells that produce antibodies.


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Solid tumours

Solid tumours may be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They are formed from a mass of tissue that does not include liquid and are named for the type of cells from which they originate. Solid tumours include sarcomas and carcinomas.

Biliary tract cancer

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Biliary tract cancer

Biliary tract cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the bile ducts, the tube that carries bile between the liver and gallbladder and the small intestine. Intrahepatic forms of this cancer are found inside the liver, whilst extrahepatic forms are outside the liver.


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Brain cancer

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Brain cancer

The growth of malignant abnormal cells within the brain.


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Brain metastases

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Brain metastases

The occurrence of cancer that has spread from the original primary tumour to the brain.


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Glioblastoma

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Glioblastoma

A fast-growing tumour of the central nervous system that originates from glial tissue within the brain.


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Ovarian cancer

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Ovarian cancer

Cancer formed in the tissues of the ovary. Ovarian cancer can be of epithelial or germ cell origin.


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Small cell lung cancer

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Small cell lung cancer

An aggressive cancer consisting of small, oval-shaped cells that forms in lung tissue and can spread to other parts of the body.


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Soft tissue sarcoma

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Soft tissue sarcoma

A cancer originating from the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissues of the body.


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Triple negative breast cancer

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Triple negative breast cancer

A form of breast cancer where the cancer cells do not express oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or large amounts of HER2/neu protein.


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References 

  1. Rare cancers Europe.org  http://www.rarecancerseurope.org/
  2. Trivedi MS, et al.  Am J Hematol/Oncol2015;11:1-10
  3. Canadian Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/chemotherapy-and-other-drug-therapies/chemotherapy/how-chemotherapy-works/?region=on
  4. SonneveldP.  IntMed 2000;247:521-34
  5. Witzel I, et al. BMC Cancer 2014;14:806
  6. American Cancer Society. https://www.cancer.org/treatment/survivorship-during-and-after-treatment/understanding-recurrence/what-is-cancer-recurrence.html. Last accessed August 2017
  7. Stiehl T, et al. J R SocInterface2014;11:20140079